• ## Complex Impedance

There is a certain luxury of circuit calculations for systems contain direct current that alternating current systems really do not have. It is the idea that voltage and current are “synced.” An increase in voltage will create a corresponding increase in current seemingly instantaneously. However, an alternating current that experiences voltage oscillations experiences a delay.…

• ## Complex Exponentials

Complex exponentials are used immensely in math and as a result, in many fields of science. It is also used in abundance throughout this site so it is important to understand what they are for future reference. They show the relationship between exponentials and trigonometry on a fundamental level. The following is the relationship.

• ## Fractional Calculus

Calculus is the manipulation of one basic operator: the derivative or . This operator operates on functions and by repeatedly applying it, you can get higher order derivatives. It’s inverse operator is known as the integral. Similar to matrix operators which have eigenvalues and eigenvectors, this operator also has eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. The eigenfunction is…

• ## Space Transforms

Functions have the ability to be described in terms of the infinite summation of other functions with a common example being polynomials using Taylor series as shown below. However, functions can also be described in terms of trigonometric functions using the Fourier series

• ## Probability Distribution Transformations

Random number generators generate random numbers that tend to follow some kind of distribution. Uniform number generators generate a random number between 0 and 1 with equal likely hood everywhere in the range, Gaussian generators generate numbers that have higher probability to be near zero, etc. These distributions are given functions ( for uniform or  for…

• ## On Conservation

Conservation of different properties in nature immensely simplifies calculations to the point where some are impossible without the consideration of them. In some cases, it seems completely intuitive and impossible not to consider. However, not only are there many conservations laws unknown to many but there are also, in some sense, “violations” to these laws.

• ## The Shape of a String

Holding a string up with both ends at the same elevation causes the string to form a curve which not many really care to look into more than the first glance. At first, one may just assume that it is a parabola but upon closer look, it actually has a very interesting mathematical shape which…

• ## Strong Force and Nuclear Binding Energies

Forces come in various forms in nature but the nature of the strong force is very peculiar in that it does not create an attraction or repulsion between any two entities. It uses mass energy as a way to create a potential energy well. This is done by the following.